National Identity: Findings from Comparative Study in the Middle East
Respondents from nationally representative surveys in seven countries were asked “Which of the following best describes you?”
The following figure reports only the contrast between the respondents’ identification with nation and religion. Except for Pakistan and Tunisia, the percentage of respondents who recognized nationality as the basis of their identity is higher than those who considered religion.
Other survey findings available: The Birthplace of the Arab Spring: Values and Perceptions of Tunisians and A Comparative Assessment of Egyptian, Iraqi, Lebanese, Pakistani, Saudi, Tunisian, and Turkish Publics